Introduction to Paper 3, including explanation of the division into Breadth and Depth aspects.

The background and context to the topic.

Brief overview of the period covered in this topic.

Overview from Topic booklet.

Niall Ferguson, Empire (Penguin, 2004).


Depth 1
The loss of the American colonies, 1770–83

Introduction to Depth aspects.


Tensions between colonists and the British, 1770–75:

      the issue of custom collection and tea duties, including the Boston Tea Party;

      the Coercive Acts 1774 and their impact.

Clashes between British forces and rebels, 1775–76; the Declaration of Independence and Articles of Confederation.

C Bonwick, The American Revolution (Macmillan, 1991).

Gordon S Wood, The American Revolution (Phoenix, 2005).


Depth 1 continued

Britain's defeat, 1778–83:

      French and Spanish involvement;

      Britain’s limited military resources;

      the defeats of Burgoyne 1778, and Cornwallis 1781;

      the decision to seek peace and accept the Treaty of Paris.

Impact of defeat on Britain 1783.


Depth 2
The birth of British Australia, 1788–1829

Australia’s role as a penal colony from 1788; the importance of Lachlan Macquarie:

      the development of Sydney;

      land grants to ex-convicts and development up the Hawkesbury River;

      the growth of Macquarie towns.

Impact of British settlement on Aborigines in Tasmania and New South Wales, 1788–1829.

Robert Hughes, The Fatal Shore: History of Transportation to Australia 1786–1868 (Vintage, new edition, 2003).


Depth 2 continued

The spreading impact:

      penal settlement in Van Diemen's land 1803;

      development of whaling;

      first crossing of the Blue Mountains 1813.


Depth 2 continued

The spreading impact (continued):

      first settlements in Western Australia 1826

      extent of colonial control by 1829.

Depth 3 Learning from past mistakes: Canada and the Durham Report,

The political nature and governmental system of Upper and Lower Canada and the perceived threat from the USA.

Peter Burroughs, The Canadian Crisis and British Colonial Policy 1828–1841 (Arnold, 1972).


Depth 3 continued

The revolts of 1837–38: causes, course and impact.


Depth 3 continued

The importance of the Earl of Durham's appointment as High Commissioner; the roles of Charles Buller and Edward Gibbon Wakefield; the main recommendations and importance of the Durham Report.


Depth 4
Nearly losing an empire: the British in India,

The role of the East India Company and the Governor General; the importance of Bengal and the Company Army.

Saul David, The Indian Mutiny 1857 (Penguin, 2003).


Depth 4 continued

William Sleeman’s campaign against Thagi:

      the drive against Sati and female infanticide;

      the impact of missionaries.

The Indian Rebellion:

      the reforms of Dalhousie.


Depth 4 continued

The Indian Rebellion (continued):

      the annexation of Awadh;

      outbreak and events in Meerut, Cawnpore and Delhi;

      the siege and relief of Lucknow;

      reasons why the British retained control.


Depth 5
The Nile valley,

Reasons for intervention in Egypt 1882:

      Arabi Pasha and Arab nationalism;

      protecting European loans and people.

French withdrawal; the British military campaign.

Thomas Packenham, The Scramble for Africa (Abacus, 1992).


Depth 5 continued

Egypt as a ‘veiled protectorate’; the promises to withdraw and the failure to do so; the work of Sir Evelyn Baring.


Depth 5 continued

The problem of the Sudan:

      the Mahdi;

      Gladstone's concerns and policy;

      Gordon's mission, 1884–85.

The conquest of the Sudan 1898:

      the fear of French occupation;

      the role of Kitchener;

      the significance of Omdurman.


Breadth 1
The changing nature and extent of trade

Introduction to Breadth themes.


Reasons for, and nature of, the changing patterns of trade, 1763–1914:

      the importance of government policy (key developments: the abolition of the slave trade 1807, the adoption of free trade 1842–46, the repeal of the Navigation Acts 1849).

James Morris, Heaven's Command: An Imperial Progress (Faber & Faber, 1973).

P J Marshall (editor), Oxford History of The British Empire Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford University Press, 1998).

Andrew Porter (editor), Oxford History of The British Empire Volume III: The Nineteenth Century (Oxford University Press, 1999).


Breadth 1 continued

The changing importance of ports, entrepôts and trade routes within the UK and throughout the Empire, 1763–1914:

      (key developments: the acquisition of Singapore 1819 and Hong Kong 1842, the opening up of Shanghai to trade 1842).


Breadth 1 continued

The changing importance of ports, entrepôts and trade routes within the UK and throughout the Empire, 1763–1914 (continued):

      (key developments: the purchase of the Suez Canal shares 1875, the acquisition of Zanzibar 1890, the lease of Wei hai-wei 1898).


Breadth 2
The changing nature of the Royal Navy

The changing Royal Navy, 1763–1914:

      the significance of changing ship types;

      the growing role of commerce protection, including protecting, and later suppressing, the slave trade;

      suppressing piracy and defending British commerce (key development: the attack on Algiers 1816).

P Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery (Allen and Unwin, 1976).

Peter Padfield, Maritime Power 1788–1851 (John Murray, 2003).

N A M Rodger, The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain 1649–1815 (Penguin, 2004).


Breadth 2 continued

The changing Royal Navy, 1763–1914 (continued):

      the work of exploration and mapping (key development: Captain Cook's exploration of the South Seas, 1768–71).

      The importance of the acquisition and retention of key strategic bases around the globe, 1763-1914 (key developments: Gibraltar retained 1783, and the acquisition of Malta, Ceylon and Cape Town in 1815, the Falklands in 1833, Aden in 1839 and Cyprus in 1878).