Opposition to the Nazis Wiki

Section C sourcework practise and advice

Have a go at analysing these sources and answering the questions with the advice given


Picture sources to analyse
GCSE REvision Questions - Click here to practise

These powerpoints should help you with revision of Nazi Germany

CLick here for the Opposition powerpoint that we will be starting in lesson on 13th Nov 2013 and you will be presenting next lesson

The different groups we will be investigating are:

  1. Political parties ( SPD, KPD, Centre in particular)

  2. Organised opposition youth movements (Edelweiss Pirates)

  3. Organised intellectual youth movements (White Rose Movement)

  4. Unorganised youth opposition (Swing Youth)

  5. Organised intellectual/political opposition (Kreisau Circle)

  6. Organised army opposition (General Beck/Stauffenberg July Bomb Plot/Valkyrie)

  7. Catholic Church Opposition (Bishop von Galen)

  8. Protestant Church Opposition (Pastor Niemoller + Confessional Church)

  9. Jewish wartime opposition (Warsaw Ghetto uprising)

Click here for the What Makes You Angry ppt we used on Monday 18th Nov 2013 with the link to Channel 4 N. Korea documentary: http://www.channel4.com/programmes/dispatches/4od#3608784 

Popular support and Hitler

Nazi Economy

Jobs for Nazi Germany

Guns not butter

Did the Nazis do more harm than good?

How far did the Nazis achieve total control?



This set of lessons will be updates each week after the work has been completed in class

The following events all had an impact on the success of Hitler's Takeover of Power

  • Some were legal - ie they fitted within the constitutional framework of Weimar

  • However, some were definitely illegal - ie they would be against the law in any country you care to mention yet they were allowed to happen without punishment

  • A third position is that some were in that shadowy grey area where they went against the spirit of the law - ie one example not on our list is that Hitler held democracy "ransom" by saying he wouldn't take any part in it, even though he never held a majority!

In groups you have three tasks:

  1.  1. You should to create a Google Slide presentation that comprehensively EXPLAINS why [8 marker] the Nazis either exploited or passed each act or decree as part of their consolidation of power

  2. 2. You should also be ready to explain a cartoon source and a written source related to the event in this period with the question being:

  3. How do interpretations between the sources differ?

  4. Why might the interpretations differ?

  5. How convincing our the interpretations?

  6. 3. You should write a conclusion on How significant your event was in the overall "consolidation of power? (Ie an X factor versus all the other factors/events on the list.)

  7. In this situation, one should always ask the question - Click here to find out "what Johndclare.net would do?"

  8. So what are the key events?

  9. 1     Reichstag Fire - 27 Feb 1933     Written Source          

    The Reichstag (the German Parliament) burned down.  A Dutch Communist named van der Lubbe was caught red-handed with matches and fire-lighting materials.    Hitler used it as an excuse to arrest many of his Communist opponents, and as a major platform in his election campaign of March 1933.   The fire was so convenient that many people at the time claimed that the Nazis had burned it down, and then just blamed the Communists.   Modern historians, however, tend to believe that van der Lubbe did cause the fire, and that Hitler just took advantage of it.


    History Place - narrative account  

    Spartacus site - detailed

    Who did it - suggests possibilities

    World Socialist website - asserts that the SA were involved


    2    General Election - 5 March 1933 Written sources 

    Hitler held a general election, appealing to the German people to give him a clear mandate.   Only 44% of the people voted Nazi, which did not give him a majority in the Reichstag, so Hitler arrested the 81 Communist deputies (which did give him a majority).  

    Goering become Speaker of the Reichstag.


    Spartacus site - good detail

    3    Enabling Act - 23 March 1933 Written sources      

    The Reichstag voted to give Hitler the power to make his own laws.   Nazi stormtroopers stopped opposition deputies going in, and beat up anyone who dared to speak against it.     

         The Enabling Act made Hitler the dictator of Germany, with power to do anything he liked - legally.


    Spartacus site - good detail

    History Place - narrative account

    4    Local government - 26 April 1933 Written source 

    The Nazis took over local government and the police.   The Nazis started to replace anti-Nazi teachers and University professors.   Hitler set up the Gestapo (the secret police) and encouraged Germans to report opponents and 'grumblers'.   Tens of thousands of Jews, Communists, Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, gypsies, homosexuals, alcoholics and prostitutes were arrested and sent to concentration camps for 'crimes' as small as writing anti-Nazi graffiti, possessing a banned book, or saying that business was bad.  


    Simple site 

    Spartacus site - good detail

    History Place - narrative account

    5    Trade Unions banned  - 2 May 1933 Written sources 

    The Trade Unions offices were closed, their money confiscated, and their leaders put in prison.   In their place, Hitler put the German Labour Front which reduced workers' pay and took away the right to strike.  


    6    Political Parties banned - 14 July 1933 Written sources 

    The Law against the Formation of Parties declared the Nazi Party the only political party in Germany.   All other parties were banned, and their leaders were put in prison.  


    7    Night of the Long Knives - 30 June 1934 Written sources 

    The SA were the thugs who Hitler had used to help him come to power.   They had defended his meetings, and attacked opponents.   By 1934 there were more than a million of them.

         Historians have often wondered why Hitler turned on the SA.   But Hitler was in power in 1934, and there was no opposition left - the SA were an embarrassment, not an advantage.   Also, Rohm, the leader of the SA, was talking about a Socialist revolution and about taking over the army.   On the night of 30 June 1934 - codeword 'Hummingbird - Hitler ordered the SS to kill more than 400 SA men.


    Simple site 

    Spartacus site - detailed

    HistoryLearning - excellent

    History Place - narrative account

    A homosexual Kristallnacht - this gay website see the Night of the Long Knives as homophobia.


    Source A

    This David Low cartoon from 3 July 1934 shows Hitler (with a smoking gun) and Goering (shown as Thor, the God of War) glowering at - not the traditional Nazi salute - but terrified SA men with their hands up.   Some SA men already lie dead on the ground.   The caption reads: 'They salute with both hands now'.   

    Low was fiercely anti-Nazi, and portrays Hitler as a brazen murderer keeping his men in check by naked fear.

    Goebbels is shown as Hitler's poodle.


    8     Führer - 19 August 1934 Written sources      

    When Hindenburg died, Hitler took over the office of President and leader of the army (the soldiers had to swear to die for Adolf Hitler personally).   Hitler called himself 'Fuhrer'.  

  10. You should: Explain whether it was part of a legal revolution/illegal/against the spirit of the law

  11. Explain how successfully they used it

    Explain what the Nazis did to secure it

    Explain the background to the act/decision

  12. Ultimately you need to write a significant conclusion on to what extent the Nazi consolidation was legal?

Excellent powerpoint from Peter Lidington's INSET on Thurs 24th March 2011

Click here for the 2009 exam paper 1 to help with your revision before the exam

Click here for the 2008 exam paper 1 to help with your revision before the exam

Here is the powerpoint version of the 2007 exam

Here is the powerpoint version of the 2006 exam

Here is a powerpoint version of the 2005 exam

Here are some questions to help you with practise

Section A practises

Section B practises

Section C practises

Good luck

Persecution of Jews Timeline of the Holocaust

Click here for the Holocaust Research resource and links

In groups of 3 you are going to be working on different aspects of the Holocaust story and producing 3 different and substantial responses to the Holocaust for homework.

The 5 areas to choose research from are:

  1. Identification and Isolation 1933-37 - use wikipedia or Click here for the excellent Yadvashem site
  2. Ostracisation and Ghettoisation 1938-41 use wikipedia or Click here for the excellent range of resources on the Yadvashem site
  3. The Final Solution and Concentration/Death Camps 1942-45
  4. Perpetrators
  5. Liberators/Survivors

As a group you need to collect all the evidence this lesson and then produce a response for H/W:

Was the bombing of Dresden justified?

In February 1945, the last year of World War 2, Britain sent 300 Lancaster bombers to attack the crowded German city of Dresden. This attack was not the precision bombing of specific military targets. It was deliberate bombing of a whole area. The bombs destroyed city buildings and started tremendous fires.

Before long, eleven square miles of Dresden were consumed by a firestorm. The vacuum caused by the rapid rise of hot air created tornadoes that tossed furniture, trees and debris into the air. People were caught in fires as hot as 1000 °C. The city was devastated. No one knows how many thousands died.

The German armies were in retreat at this time and the war was nearly over. Some historians have argued that this attack was not justifiable on military grounds, that it was nothing more than a slaughter of civilians. But others say it helped to shorten the war in Europe.

Ultimate responsibility for this attack lay with the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill. Was the bombing of Dresden a justifiable act during wartime? How closely was Winston Churchill involved in the decision to attack the city? Does this cast a shadow upon Churchill's reputation as the heroic icon of twentieth century British history?